PureScript

The Foreign Function Interface

By Phil Freeman, published on July 15, 2015

In this short post, I’ll show how to interoperate with Javascript code using PureScript’s Foreign Function Interface (or FFI). We’ll see how to call Javascript code from PureScript code and vice versa.

Disclaimer

It should be said that choosing to work with Javascript via the FFI will “void the warranty” of the typechecker to a certain extent. Once you step outside the safe confines of the PureScript type system, nothing is guaranteed, so it is recommended that you know a few basics of the language implementation before writing your own FFI bindings. That said, the correspondence between PureScript types and their Javascript representations is fairly simple, so it should not be too difficult to understand.

Calling PureScript from Javascript

Calling a PureScript function from Javascript is very simple, at least for functions with simple types.

Let’s take the following simple module as an example:

module Test where

import Prelude

gcd :: Int -> Int -> Int
gcd n m | n == 0 = m
gcd n m | m == 0 = n
gcd n m | n > m = gcd (n - m) m
gcd n m = gcd (m - n) n

This function finds the greatest common divisor of two numbers by repeated subtraction. It is a nice example of a case where you might like to use PureScript to define the function, but have a requirement to call it from Javascript: it is simple to define this function in PureScript since it is made up of pattern matches and recursion, and the implementor can benefit from the use of the type checker.

To understand how this function can be called from Javascript, it is important to realize that PureScript functions always get turned into Javascript functions of a single argument, so we need to apply its arguments one-by-one:

var Test = require('Test');
Test.gcd(15)(20);

Here, I am assuming that the code was compiled with psc, which compiles PureScript modules to CommonJS modules. For that reason, I was able to reference the gcd function on the Test object, after importing the Test module using require.

You might also like to bundle JavaScript code for the browser, using psc-bundle. In that case, you would access the Test module on the global namespace, which defaults to PS:

var Test = PS.Test;
Test.gcd(15)(20);

Understanding Name Generation

PureScript aims to preserve names during code generation as much as possible. In particular, most identifiers which are neither PureScript nor Javascript keywords can be expected to be preserved, at least for names of top-level declarations.

If you decide to use a Javascript keyword as an identifier, the name will be escaped with a double dollar symbol. For example,

null = []

generates the following Javascript:

var $$null = [];

In addition, if you would like to use special characters in your identifier names, they will be escaped using a single dollar symbol. For example,

example' = 100

generates the following Javascript:

var example$prime = 100;

Calling Javascript from PureScript

Javascript values and functions can be used from PureScript by using the FFI. The problem becomes how to choose suitable types for values originating in Javascript.

The general rule regarding types is that you can enforce as little or as much type safety as you like when using the FFI, but you should be careful to avoid common pitfalls when dealing with Javascript values, like the possibility of null or undefined values being returned from a Javascript function. Functions defined in the Prelude and core libraries tend to err on the side of type safety where possible.

Foreign Modules

In PureScript, JavaScript code is wrapped using a foreign module. A foreign module is just a CommonJS module which is associated with a PureScript module. Foreign modules are required to adhere to certain conventions:

Here is an example, where we export a function which computes interest amounts from a foreign module:

"use strict";

exports.calculateInterest = function(amount) {
  return amount * 0.1;
};

This file should be saved as src/Interest.js. The corresponding PureScript module Interest will be saved in src/Interest.purs, and will look like this:

module Interest where

foreign import calculateInterest :: Number -> Number

In the companion PureScript module, we simply assign a type to the exports of the foreign module by using a foreign import declaration. These values are then available to modules which import our PureScript module.

Functions of Multiple Arguments

PureScript functions are curried by default, so Javascript functions of multiple arguments require special treatment.

Suppose we wanted to modify our calculateInterest function to take a second argument:

"use strict";

exports.calculateInterest = function(amount, months) {
  return amount * Math.exp(0.1, months);
};

A correct foreign import declaration now should use a foreign type whose runtime representation correctly handles functions of multiple arguments. The purescript-functions package provides a collection of such types for function arities from 0 to 10:

module Interest where

import Data.Function.Uncurried (Fn2)

foreign import calculateInterest :: Fn2 Number Number Number

Here, the Fn2 type constructor is used to wrap Javascript functions of two arguments. We can write a curried wrapper function in PureScript which will allow partial application:

calculateInterestCurried :: Number -> Number -> Number
calculateInterestCurried = runFn2 calculateInterest

An alternative is to use curried functions in the native module, using multiple nested functions, each with a single argument, as the runtime representation of the function type constructor (->) dictates:

"use strict";

exports.calculateInterest = function(amount) {
  return function(months) {
    return amount * Math.exp(0.1, months);
  };
};

This time, we can assign the curried function type directly:

foreign import calculateInterest :: Number -> Number -> Number

Handling Constrained Types

Another special case that you should be aware of when calling PureScript functions from Javascript is that values with constrained types (i.e. types which contain type class constraints) contain extra parameters which are used to pass type class dictionaries to the function.

For example, let’s write a simple PureScript function with a constrained type, and look at the generated Javascript.

module Test where

import Prelude
import Data.Tuple (Tuple(..))

inOrder :: forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Tuple a a
inOrder a1 a2 | a1 < a2 = Tuple a1 a2
inOrder a1 a2 = Tuple a2 a1

The generated Javascript looks like this:

var inOrder = function (__dict_Ord_32) {
  return function (_1) {
    return function (_2) {
      if (Prelude["<"](__dict_Ord_32)(_1)(_2)) {
        return Data_Tuple.Tuple(_1)(_2);
      };
      return Data_Tuple.Tuple(_2)(_1);
    };
  };
};

Notice that inOrder is a (curried) function of three arguments, not two. The first argument is the type class dictionary for the Ord constraint.

We can call this function from Javascript by passing an explicit type class dictionary from the Prelude as the first parameter:

var test = Test.inOrder(Prelude.ordNumber())(20)(10);

Handling Side Effects

Notice that the calculateInterest functions defined above were pure: they had no side-effects and produced the same result for the same input on every invocation.

The PureScript function type a -> b does not allow for side-effects, so it would be incorrect to assign a function type to a Javascript computation with side-effects. The correct approach in this case is to use the Eff type constructor, defined in the purescript-eff package, to assign a type to the computation.

The Eff type constructor and its usage is documented on the wiki.

Santizing Foreign Data With Data.Foreign

Data returned from Javascript functions cannot generally be trusted to be defined and non-null. PureScript functions in the Prelude and common libraries generally assume that values will be neither undefined nor null, so it is important to sanitize data when working with values returned from Javascript functions using the FFI.

The Data.Foreign module (available in the purescript-foreign package) defines a Foreign data type, and several helper functions for turning Foreign values into regular PureScript values, as well as support for handling null and undefined using the Maybe type constructor.

Defining Foreign Data Types

It is often useful when wrapping Javascript APIs to create new types at a specific kind for use with the FFI.

For example, suppose we have a Javascript library frob which defines the Frob data structure and associated functions. To give meaningful types to those functions, it might be useful to define a type Frob at kind *. We can do this as follows:

foreign import data Frob :: *

The type Frob can now be used in other types, or in foreign import declarations:

foreign import makeFrob :: String -> Frob

Developers who define their own foreign data types should take care to document their expected runtime representations.

Conclusion

I have hopefully shown that interoperating with Javascript is simple in both directions, once a few small implementation details are understood. You should now be able to wrap your Javascript libraries for use in PureScript, and vice versa.

The PureScript book contains more information on the FFI, and plenty of examples and exercises for any interested readers.